The town, formerly known as Bolton Mills, was founded in around 1822 when James Bolton helped build a flour mill for his relative George Bolton.
By 1857, Bolton was a village with a population of 700 in the Township of Albion County Peel. It was established on the River Humber. It was on the line of the proposed Toronto Grey and Bruce Railway. There were stages to and from Weston. The average price of land was $40 to $50 an acre.
The suburban housing developments began near King Street, up to 15th Sideroad of Albion (now known as Bolton Heights Road). The urban area did not expand until the late 1970s and early 1980s, which also led to development of an industrial area in the southwest. The urban area up to Columbia Way - the northern boundary - began booming in the late 1980s. Housing developments continued towards the southern and the western parts of the town about 1 km northwest of the heart of town in the 1990s and the 15th Sideroad in about 1995, especially to the north. The industrial area began adding buildings to the southwest up to Simpson Road. The urban areas merged with the southern part in 2000 and the northwest.
Future growth is a subject of debate amongst the village's residents as well as within the upper- and lower-tier municipal governments.
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